Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt w - Wridemy Essaydoers

Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt w

 

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 4

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 4Assigned Readings:Chapter 9. Foundations of Group BehaviorChapter 10. Understanding Work Teams

Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. You have been working at Saxet Consulting for the past year and are expected to complete three client reviews per week. You have been very productive and have been completing two extra reviews per week. At a recent team meeting, you expected to receive praise from the President for this extra work; however, your manager took credit for the extra work and received the praise from the President. What has your manager violated and what is your likely reaction? 

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student's own words – do not provide quotes!] [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review] 

 

Activity #4 – Article Critique Assignment

In this assignment, you are to critically read and evaluate a scholarly article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contributions to the study field. Learning how to critique a journal article has several benefits, including preparing you for publishing in the future and keeping you current on the literature in your field of study. The practical application is developing the ability to look at research within your organization and industry with a knowledgeable, critical eye. 

The University of the Cumberland's (UC) Library subscribes to many journals and provides you access to appropriate collections to support this assignment. Using the UC Library, locate and review the following peer-reviewed articles: 

  • Dysvik, A & Kuvaas, B. (2013). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: The moderating role of achievement goals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), 412–430. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02090.x.
  • Aydogmus, Metin Camgoz, S., Ergeneli, A., & Tayfur Ekmekci, O. (2018). Perceptions of transformational leadership and job satisfaction: The roles of personality traits and psychological empowerment. Journal of Management & Organization, 24(1), 81–107. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2016.59
  • Fitzsimmons, Callan, V. J., & Paulsen, N. (2014). Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and female CEOs differ in how they reached the top? The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), 245–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.08.005 
  • Flocco, Canterino, F., & Cagliano, R. (2021). Leading innovation through employees’ participation: Plural leadership in employee-driven innovation practices. Leadership (London, England), 17(5), 499–518. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715020987928
  • Kuenzi, Mayer, D. M., & Greenbaum, R. L. (2020). Creating an ethical organizational environment: The relationship between ethical leadership, ethical organizational climate, and unethical behavior. Personnel Psychology, 73(1), 43–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12356
  • de Reuver, Van de Voorde, K., & Kilroy, S. (2021). When do bundles of high performance work systems reduce employee absenteeism? The moderating role of workload. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(13), 2889–2909. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2019.1616594

Following your review, choose one article from this list; critically evaluate the article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contribution to the study field using the outline below as a guide: Cover page

  • The cover page will include:
    • Articles Title and Author (s)
    • Name of Journal (s)
    • Date of publication
    • Your name

Executive Summary

  • Summarize the significant aspects of the entire article, including:
    • The overall purpose and general area of study of the article.
    • The specific problem being addressed in the study.
    • The main findings of the article.

Literature Review

  • Briefly summarize the overall themes presented in the Literature Review.
    • Was the literature review applicable to the study, current and thorough?
    • Were there gaps in the literature review?

Data Analysis

  • Identify the methodology used: qualitative, quantitative, mixed? Was the chosen methodology appropriate for the study? Why or why not?
  • Did the data analysis prove or disprove the research questions? Explain.

 Results/Conclusion

  • In this section, you will address the following:
    • Describe the article’s relevance to the field of knowledge.
    • Outline the strengths and weaknesses of the article. Be specific.
    • Based on the article, what future research do you think needs to be accomplished in this area?
    • What are your key points and takeaways after analyzing the article?

Proper APA in-text citation must be used. The review is to be word-processed double spaced, not less than two pages, and no more than five pages in length. Paper length does not include the cover page, abstract, or references page(s). 

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 9

Foundations of Group Behavior

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.

9.2 Describe the punctuated equilibrium model of group development.

9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.

9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.

9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.

9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.

9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Defining and Classifying Groups Learning Objective 9.1

Group: two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives

Formal: defined by the organization’s structure

Informal: neither formally structured nor organizationally determined

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Groups are defined as two or more individuals who come together to achieve a set goal. There are two main types of groups. The first is a formal group, where the organization establishes the group with defined work tasks and outcomes. The second group is an informal group that is not part of the organizational structure. They are often established in reaction to a need for social interaction and form naturally. Informal groups can have a significant influence on behavior and performance.

3

Social Identity

Social identity theory

Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups

Relational identification (connect because of our roles)

Collective identification (connect with the aggregate characteristics of our groups)

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Shared experiences enhance our bonds with our groups. Social identity theory explores our tendency to personally invest in the accomplishments of a group. Relational identification occurs when we connect because of our roles. Collective identification occurs when we connect with the aggregate characteristics of our groups.

4

Ingroups and Outgroups

Ingroup

Members of a group we belong to

Ingroup favoritism – when we see our ingroup members as better than other people and people not in our group

Outgroup

The inverse of an ingroup; “everyone else”

Can mean anyone outside the group, but usually it is an identified other group

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An ingroup consists of the members of a group we belong to. Ingroup favoritism occurs when we see members of our group as being better than other people and people not in our group as being all the same. The opposite of an ingroup is an outgroup, or “everyone else.”

Animosity may exist between ingroups and outgroups, especially in the area of religion.

By classifying employees into human and non-human, a new panhumanist social identity (with humans as the in-group) may emerge that can reduce human-to-human prejudice, discrimination, and inequality.

5

The Punctuated Equilibrium Model (Exhibit 9-1) Learning Objective 9.2

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Temporary groups follow a punctuated equilibrium model. The first meeting sets the group’s direction, after which a period of inertia sets in until about half the group’s allotted time is used up. At that point, a transition initiates major changes, followed by a second period of inertia. The group’s last meeting is characterized by a much higher level of activity.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

The vertical axis of the graph represents performance from low to high. The horizontal axis represents time from A to B, where A represents the first meeting and B represents completion.

Phase 1 is a horizontal line from A to the halfway point, written as A Plus B divided by 2, at a low level of performance. At this point transition occurs, which is represented by a jagged vertical line to a higher level of performance.

Phase 2 from this point maintains a high level of performance with a short step up just before completion.

6

Group Property 1: Roles Learning Objective 9.3

Role: the set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit

Role perception – our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation

Role expectations – how others believe you should act in a given situation

Role conflict – conflict experienced when multiple roles are incompatible

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Work groups have properties, including roles, norms, status, size, cohesiveness, and diversity that shape the behavior of members. These properties can help explain and predict behavior within the group and the performance of the group itself.

Roles are the functions assumed by someone occupying a given position in a group such as the leader or the task master. Each role is assigned a certain identity that explains expected attitudes and behaviors that correspond with the role identity. Each individual has their own point of view of how they are supposed to act in the context of the group; this is called role perception. Role expectations look at how others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role conflict occurs when compliance with one role requirement makes it difficult to comply with another.

7

Group Property 2: Norms Learning Objective 9.4

Norms:

Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members

Norms and emotions

Norms and conformity

Norms and behavior

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Norms are standards of behavior that are acceptable by group members. Research shows that norms dictate the experience of emotions for individuals and for groups – so people grow to interpret their shared emotions in the same way.

Groups can place strong pressures on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to match the standards of the group. Solomon Asch and others have researched this pressure to conform as shown in the next slide.

The Hawthorne studies, which will be discussed later, showed the influence of norms on employee behavior.

8

Norms and Conformity

Reference groups: groups in which a person is aware of other members, defines self as a member, believes group members to be significant

Individuals try to conform to norms of these groups

Asch Studies

Members avoid being visibly different

Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others

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The Asch studies, which were conducted in the early 1950s, found that groups can encourage members to change their attitudes and behaviors to be more in line with those of the other group members.

9

Norms and Behavior

Lessons from the Hawthorne studies:

Productivity increased because groups were paid attention to by the observers – not because of changes in environment

Workers in groups do not maximize individual economic rewards

Group standards are set and enforced by the group itself

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The Hawthorne studies were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s. This research has been widely used in the understanding of group interactions. These studies found that worker behavior was highly influenced by group norms and that individual productivity was influenced by the standards the group set forth. Also, money was not as important in determining worker output as group standards and sentiments were.

10

Negative Norms and Group Outcomes

Deviant Workplace Behavior: voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Some individuals do not like to conform and adhere to set norms for a number of reasons. Individuals of this nature may engage in deviant workplace behavior or behavior that goes against organizational norms and hinders the desired outcomes of the organization.

11

Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior

Production

Leaving early

Intentionally working slowly

Wasting resources

Property

Sabotage

Lying about hours worked

Stealing from the organization

Political

Showing favoritism

Gossiping and spreading rumors

Blaming coworkers

Personal aggression

Sexual harassment

Verbal abuse

Stealing from coworkers

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These are some examples of deviant workplace behavior.

12

Group Property 3: Status Learning Objective 9.5

Status: a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others

Determined by:

The power a person wields over others

A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals

An individual’s personal characteristics

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Status is another group property and refers to the position or rank given to groups or their members as a way to differentiate members. Status can influence behavior and has been found to be a significant motivator. The status characteristics theory suggests that status is derived by one of three sources: the power a person has over others, the ability to contribute to group goals, or personal characteristics.

13

Group Property 3: Status (1 of 2)

Status and Norms

High-status members often have more freedom to deviate from norms and are better able to resist conformity pressures

Status and Group Interaction

People seeking higher status are more assertive

Low status members may not participate

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Status can have an impact on a number of things in groups. First, it can impact norms within a group where high-status members don’t feel the need to conform to group norms but can pressure others to conform. It can impact group interaction, where members who hold more status tend to be more assertive and can hinder new ideas being presented.

14

Group Property 3: Status (2 of 2)

Status Inequity

Perceived inequity creates disequilibrium

Status and Stigmatization

People who are stigmatized can “infect” others

Stigma by association

Group Status

Us versus them mentality

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Status impacts perceived equity in a group, which will influence how engaged others are in the group process. Your status may be affected by the people you are affiliated with. Finally, the us versus them mentality that we acquire early in life influences how society treats ingroups and outgroups.

15

Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics

Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks

Large groups are consistently better at idea generation

Social loafing: tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone

Consistent with individualistic cultures

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Size is an important factor in group behavior as well and impacts the behavior in groups. Larger groups are good for gaining diverse input. If the goal is fact-finding or idea-generating, larger groups should be more effective. Smaller groups are better at doing something productive.

There are some detrimental behaviors that can occur around group size. For example, as groups get larger, social loafing can occur. Some individuals may put in less effort because they think others in the group will make up for them.

16

Preventing Social Loafing

Set group goals

Increase intergroup competition

Engage in peer evaluation

Select members who have high motivation and like to work in groups

Distribute group rewards based on members’ individual contributions

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Social loafing occurs when individuals don’t work as hard in groups as they would on an individual basis.

When working with groups, managers must be sure to build in individual accountability. Social loafing can be prevented by setting up goals, encouraging intergroup competition, using peer evaluation as part of the feedback process, and linking group rewards to individual behavior.

17

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness Learning Objective 9.6

Cohesiveness: the degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group

Performance-related norms are the moderating variable for productivity and cohesiveness

High cohesiveness with high norms yields higher productivity

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Group cohesiveness is the degree to which group members want to stay together and are motivated to work together as a group. Managers can do a lot to encourage group cohesiveness.

If performance norms are high, then a more cohesive group will rise to the occasion and will achieve a high level of productivity.

18

Encouraging Cohesiveness

Make the group smaller

Encourage agreement with group goals

Increase the time spent together

Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership

Stimulate competition with other groups

Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members

Physically isolate the group

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As outlined, there are many ways to encourage cohesiveness in a group. Cohesiveness is facilitated when groups are kept small, all members have an understanding of group goals, the group is encouraged to spend time together, and the perceived status of the group is increased. In addition, by stimulating competition with other groups, members will find ways to work together. Managers can also reward the group as a whole and not just individuals within the group. Finally, they can physically isolate the group by sending them on a retreat or giving them their own work space. These actions can significantly influence group cohesiveness.

19

Group Property 6: Diversity

Diversity: the degree to which members of the group are similar to or different from one another

Types of group diversity

Surface level diversity

Deep level diversity

Functional level diversity

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Diversity refers to the degree to which members of a group are similar or different from one another. These differences, which may be cultural or demographic, can increase group conflict in the short term, but once the conflicts are resolved, the group may actually perform better than a non-diverse group. Surface level diversity appears to increase group conflict. Groups with deep-level diversity are able to reduce conflicts and enhance discussion of group issues when they focus on the task at hand. Functional diversity may improve team performance and innovation.

20

Challenges of Group Diversity

Faultlines: perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as gender, race, age, work experience, and education

Splits are generally detrimental to group functioning and performance

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Overall, although research on faultlines suggests that diversity in groups is a potentially double-edged sword, recent work indicates that they can be strategically employed to improve performance.

One study suggested that faultlines based on differences in skill, knowledge, and expertise could be beneficial when the groups were in organizational cultures that strongly emphasized results. This type of culture focuses people’s attention on what’s important to the company rather than on problems arising from subgroups.

21

Group Decision Making Learning Objective 9.7

Strengths Weaknesses
Generate more complete information and knowledge Increased diversity of views Increased acceptance of a solution Takes longer Conformity pressures Discussions can be dominated by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility for the final outcome

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Group decision making can be beneficial, but it also has its disadvantages. Groups do tend to generate more complete information and knowledge, as well as offer a greater diversity of views and increased creativity, but since more people are involved in the decision, there is a risk of conformity and no clear responsibility for outcomes. Moreover, discussions can be dominated by a few members.

22

Effectiveness and Efficiency

Effectiveness

Accuracy – group is better than average individual but worse than most accurate group member

Speed – individuals are faster

Creativity – groups are better

Degree of acceptance – groups are better

Efficiency

Groups are generally less efficient

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In some situations groups are more effective or efficient, and in other situations, individuals are. When it comes to accuracy, groups tend to perform better, but they are not as fast. Groups can be more creative, and their decisions may be better accepted because of multi-person buy in.

23

Groupthink and Groupshift

Groupthink: relates to norms and describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views

Groupshift: describes the way group members tend to exaggerate their initial positions when discussing alternatives and arriving at solutions

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Two by-products of group decision making, groupthink and groupshift, can affect a group’s ability to appraise alternatives objectively and achieve high-quality solutions.

24

Minimizing Groupthink

Limit group size

Encourage group leaders to actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions

Appoint a “devil’s advocate”

Use exercises that stimulate active discussion of diverse alternatives

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Groupthink can be minimized by limiting the group size, having a leader who actively seeks input from all members, and by appointing a devil’s advocate, or someone who is always trying to look at things from a different perspective.

25

Groupshift or Group Polarization

Groupshift: Group discussions lead members to assume new, more extreme, positions

Groups often take positions of greater risk or greater caution

May be due to diffused responsibility or greater comfort level among members

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Another phenomenon in the group decision-making process is groupshift (or group polarization), where once a solution is selected, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. This can cause a shift to a more conservative or risky decision, but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position.

26

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Interacting groups

Rely on verbal and non-verbal interactions to communicate

Brainstorming

Generates a list of creative alternatives

Problem: production blocking

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

Restricts discussion during the decision-making process to encourage independent thinking

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Some group techniques can assist in the decision-making process. The first technique that can help is brainstorming. This is a process that is aimed at generating ideas, where all ideas are welcomed and the group tries to create an environment that overcomes pressure for conformity. The nominal group technique works by restricting discussion during the decision-making process to help participants to operate independently.

27

Evaluating Group Effectiveness (Exhibit 9-5)

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This exhibit shows that an interacting group is good for achieving commitment to a solution, brainstorming develops group cohesiveness, and the nominal group technique is an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.

Long Description:

The effectiveness criteria are evaluated based on the techniques like: Interacting, type of group brainstorming, and nominal.

The details are as below:

Number and quality of ideas: Interacting, low; type of group brain storming, moderate; nominal, high.

Social pressure: Interacting, high; type of group brainstorming, low; nominal, moderate.

Money costs: All techniques are low.

Speed: All techniques are moderate.

Task orientation Interacting, low; type of group brain storming, high; nominal, moderate.

Potential for interpersonal conflict: Interacting, high; type of group brain storming, low; nominal, moderate.

Commitment to solution: Interacting, high; type of group brain storming, not applicable; nominal, moderate.

Development of group cohesiveness: Interacting, high; type of group brain storming, high; nominal, moderate.

28

Implications for Managers

Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in organizations, to either a positive or negative effect.

To decrease the possibility of deviant workplace activities, ensure that group norms do not support antisocial behavior.

Pay attention to the status aspect of groups.

Use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for action-taking tasks.

To increase employee satisfaction, ensure people perceive their job roles accurately.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in organizations, to either a positive or negative effect.

To decrease the possibility of deviant workplace activities, ensure that group norms do not support antisocial behavior.

Pay attention to the organizational status levels of the employee groups you create.

When forming employee groups, use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for action-taking tasks.

To increase employee satisfaction, work on making certain your employees perceive their job roles the same way you perceive their roles.

29

Discussion Questions

Discuss how the inability to balance work and home might reflect interrole conflict.

Discuss the significance of the view that “bad apples” come from “bad barrels” as it relates to deviant workplace behavior. How can organizations minimize this?

Discuss a situation where groupshift (group polarization) occurred. Offer an explanation for the shift.

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Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

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31

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,

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 10

Understanding Work Teams

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

10.1 Contrast groups and teams.

10.2 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.

10.3 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.

10.4 Explain how organizations can create team players.

10.5 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Groups and Teams Learning Objective 10.1

Work group: interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help one another perform within each member’s area of responsibility

Work team: generates positive synergy through coordinated effort; individual efforts result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Groups and teams are not the same thing. A group is primarily there to share information and make decisions; no real joint effort is required. A team works in a more coordinated effort to achieve a goal.

3

Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams (Exhibit 10-1)

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Work groups and work teams differ on their goals, level of synergy, accountability, and skills. Their function is different. Work groups share information, while work teams work together for a collective performance. The synergy in groups is neutral, whereas work teams have a positive synergy. Accountability can be individual in both, but it is more often mutual in teams. The skills in a group can be varied, whereas the skills on a team need to be complementary.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Goal: Work Groups share information; Work Teams collective performance.

Synergy: Work Groups neutral (sometimes negative); Work Teams positive.

Accountability: Work Groups individual; Work Teams Individual and mutual.

Skills: Work Groups random and varied; Work Teams complementary.

4

Four Types of Teams (Exhibit 10-2) Learning Objective 10.2

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There are four main types of teams: problem-solving, self-managed, cross-functional, and virtual.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Problem-solving: The schematic is in the form of a converging radial diagram, where each member of the team comes together toward the problem, depicted by a question mark, in the center.

Self-managed: The schematic shows a pentagram within a pentagon and team members at its vertices.

Cross-functional: The schematic shows managers from the bottom of a hierarchical organizational chart connected to the team members of the self-managed schematic.

Virtual: The schematic shows people at various locations connected to each other via technology.

5

Problem-Solving Teams

Members often from the same department

Share ideas or suggest improvements

Rarely given authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggested actions

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Problem-solving teams are a very popular method used in many organizations. Typically this type of team meets for a few hours each week to solve a particular problem.

6

Self-Managed Work Teams

10-15 employees in highly related jobs

Team takes on supervisory responsibilities:

Work planning and scheduling

Assigning tasks

Operating decisions/actions

Working with customers

May select and evaluate members

Effectiveness is dependent on the situation

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Self-managed work teams are comprised of a group of people who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.

The effectiveness of this type of team greatly depends on the situation and the goals of the team.

7

Cross-Functional Teams

Members from same level, but diverse areas, within and between organizations

Exchange information

Develop new ideas and solve problems

Coordinate complex projects

Development may be time consuming due to complexity and diversity

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