20 Jul Course Objectives: CO5: Define sourcing as a supply chain component, how to measure performance, and key strategies to improve effectiveness. CO7: Evaluate logistics as a supply
CO5: Define sourcing as a supply chain component, how to measure performance, and key strategies to improve effectiveness.
CO7: Evaluate logistics as a supply chain component, including how to measure performance, and key strategies to improve effectiveness.
For this two-week assignment, you will be answering a series of questions regarding two case studies; one case study in Chapter 5 on the Sourcing function and a second in Chapter 6 that addresses the logistics function. The Case studies are included in an attached Word document. It is recommended you print out a copy of this to have while answering each question. You may also read these at the end of chapters 6 and 7 in your textbook (Sanders). As this is a two-week assignment, use your best instincts how to "completely answer" each question. Your instructor will be looking for depth of insight, excellence in research, and highly professional writing.
The template below is formatted according to APA7 and should not be modified other than to enter your "response" to each question. Begin by reading the assigned chapters. Next, carefully study each case study, then research each assignment context on the internet in order to provide in-depth answers and a minimum of 3 resources. There is a a grading criteria is available below that explains how your answers will be graded. Remember to provide in-text citations for both paraphrased and quoted testimony from you experts. When inserting a direct quote, remember to include either a page number or, if a web-based resource, use a paragraph number. If you need to brush up on APA7, two resources are included as attachments to help you format references and citations.
Sourcing and Logistics Case Studies
SCMG201 Principles of Supply Chain Management
Sourcing Case Study
Snedeker Global Cruises
Use your textbook and a minimum of three expert resources (total) from the internet to answer the following questions regarding this case study.
Question 1. Suggest and explain the specific steps Brandt should follow to prepare for the EDP process
Question 2. Identify differences between traditional purchasing and use of e-auctions. How can Brandt use these differences to make his selection? What types of items would be best suited for purchase through e-auctions?
Question 3. Assume Brandt has identified products to purchase through e-auctions, what steps does he need to take to conduct a successful e-auction?
Question 4. What negative impact can e-auctions have on supplier relationships, and how can Brandt ensure that they do not occur?
Logistics Case Study
Strategic Solutions Inc.
Use your textbook and a minimum of three expert resources from the internet to answer the following questions regarding this case study.
Question 1. Identify and describe the characteristics of an ideal information system for this logistics environment. Gather information on both EDI and TMS, and compare their suitability for this environment
Question 2. Help Scott decide if he should invest in either EDI or TMS, or both. Is there another type of system that you believe would be better? What kind of benefits, including performance and customer satisfaction, can Scott expect by making these proposed changes to the business process?
Question 3. What are the key considerations when deciding on the best possible systems to implement?
APA 7th ed. Guidelines
APA 7th ed. Guidelines
APA 7th ed. Guidelines New Seventh Edition 2019 The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has recently updated the widely referenced Manual to a Seventh Edition. Updated for simplified, condensed material while retaining and strengthening the basic rules of APA. American Public University
APA 7th ed. Guidelines
New Guidelines seventh Edition 2019
In today’s fast growing technological world, new inventions have altered the manner in which we gather report and perform scientific research. Thus, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association updated the widely referenced Manual to a Seventh Edition, which simplifies, condenses, and meets the needs of users in mind. This edition promotes accessibility for everyone, including Web Content Accessibility Guidelines while also concentrating on the Basic Elements of APA writing.
October 2019, the American Psychological Association released its seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with modifications to APA Style writing, sources, & structure.
As you continue your higher education, you are faced with different writing styles. This reference guide will concentrate on the basic principles of APA style as it applies to writing term (research) papers and essays. This reference guide will provide helpful tips and suggestions to assist in producing a scholarly term paper or essay using APA formatting and style guidelines.
CHANGES TO THE NEW APA EDITION
· Citing online material
· Use of inclusive & bias-free language
· References & in-text citations are easier and clearer
· APA diversity for paper guidelines professionally or academically created
· Better explained guidelines for mechanics
APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes
Date published October 11, 2019 by Raimo Streefkerk. Date updated: November 5, 2019
In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.
In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common
· the use of inclusive
· bias-free language is increasingly important
· technology used by researchers and students has changed
The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. This article outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.
References and in-text citations in APA Style
· When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer.
· In total, 114 examples are provided, ranging from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. For each reference category an easy template is provided that helps you to understand and apply the citation guidelines. The biggest changes in the 7th edition are:
3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list. (9.8)
4. DOIs are formatted as urls (https://doi.org/xxx). The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary. (DOI)
5. URLs are embedded directly in the reference, without being preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.
6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference. (10.2)
7. Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors that are not an author or editor. For example, when citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; for a TV series episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited. (Table 10.15)
8. Dozens of examples are included for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. Also, the use of emojis and hashtags is explained. (Table 10.15)
Inclusive and bias-free language (5.1-5.10)
Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic.
The guidelines provided by APA help authors to reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels. Some examples are:
9. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.
10. Descriptive phrases such as “people living in poverty” are preferred over adjectives as nouns to label people (e.g., “the poor”).
11. Instead of broad categories (e.g., over 65 years old), you should use exact age ranges (e.g., 65-75) that are more relevant and specific.
APA Paper format
In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:
14. The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise).
15. Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability. (Table 2.3)
Mechanics of style
In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:
16. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence. (6.1)
17. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics. (6.22-6.23)
APA (Seventh Edition) provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication, helping authors present ideas clearly, concisely, and in an organization manner. Uniformity and consistency enable writers and readers to:
a) Focus on ideas being presented vs. formatting
b) Scan works quickly for key points, findings, sources
APA style guidelines encourage writers to disclose essential information allowing readers to dispense with minor distractions i.e.
1) Inconsistencies or omissions in punctuation
3) Reference citations
4) Presentation of statistics (p. xvii)
APA 7th ed. broadened its audience of consultants of not only by psychologists but also students and researchers in many fields such as business, education, social work, nursing and many other behavioral and social sciences. The scope and length of the APA manual has grown in the response to the needs of researchers, students, and educators across disciplines.
(2.2) APA BASIC/MINIMUM STUDENT PAPER ELEMENTS:
Student papers, narrative essays, literature review, usually include:
· The cover page or title page (Sections 2.3-2.6)
· Text of the paper (Section 2.11)
· Reference page (Section 2.12)
· Page numbers (Section 2.18)
(2.3) COVER PAGE/TITLE PAGE
APA Manuscript elements of the title page:
***For Student Papers there is no requirement for a Running head in the header.
Page number in the header flush right
Title of the paper in bold
1. Title (in title case 6.17) bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page, 3-4 lines down from top margin (2.4) added space for the next element is not required
2. Author name first name, middle initial, last name. No titles or degrees are used (Dr. or Ph.D.) (1.22)
3. Under the author’s name is the institutional affiliation – American Public University (2.6)
4. Next is the Course number – Course name
5. Instructor name
6. Due date (month date year)
7. Page numbers (2.18)
(2.11) TEXT OF THE PAPER
· 1” margins all the way around
· All text double-spaced
· Every new sentence 1 tab indent (0.5 inches)
Format, the text should start on a new page after the title page and after the title of the paper in title case, bold, and centered.
The text left-aligned, double-spaced paragraphs, the first line of each paragraph indented by one tab key (0.5 in.; Section 2.23-2.24). Use headings as needed to separate sections and reflect the organizational structure of content (Section 2.26-2.27). Do not start a new page or add extra line breaks when a new heading occurs; each section of the text should follow the next without a break.
BASIC APA WRITING COMPONENTS
· (2.3) Title page: Use APA format (see example above)
· (2.4) Title: Name your paper. The title can “hook” your readers. The title should summarize the main idea of the paper
· (2.11) Introductory Paragraph: Should summarize the prose of the assignment, introducing the topic. Pretend the reader has no idea of the topic the paper, concisely elaborate on the topic. The thesis statement is often the last sentence of the first paragraph, generally a segue sentence to the body/sub-header (if used) essay
· (2.26) Principles of Organization: The key to writing sound, organized, scholarly structured is to be clear, precise and logical. Headings in a paper identify the purpose
and aid the reader’s ability to become familiar with the essays content – allows for easier found information sought.
· (2.27) Heading Levels: The first paragraphs of the paper are understood to be introductory, the heading “Introduction” is not needed. Do not begin a paper with an “Introduction” heading
· (4.06) Sentence & Paragraph Length: Discuss topic. The number of paragraphs will depend on the length and complexity of your paper. There is not minimum or maximum sentence length in APA Style. Overuse of too short or too long sentences results in incomprehensible. Single sentence paragraphs are abrupt and used infrequently. A new paragraph signals a shift to a new idea.
WRITING THE PAPER
There are specific guidelines when writing an APA style paper.
· Center the title at the top of page two. The title is written in title case (6.17)
· Double space entire paper (2.21)
· Use 1 inch margins (2.22)
· Text is left aligned (2.23)
· APA Style paper should be written in a font accessible to all users.
· Use the same font throughout the paper (2.19)
· Suggested options
· 11-point Calibri
· 11-point Arial
· 10-point Lucida
· 12-point Times New Roman
· 11-point Georgia
· Normal 10-point Computer Modern
· First sentence of every paragraph must be indented (2.24)
· Quotes 40 words or more must be in blocked quotation format with no quotation marks and include the page number in parentheses after the last period (8.27)
(2.12) COMPONENTS OF A REFERENCE PAGE
Title of page, in bold (References)
The word ‘References’ (‘Reference if only one source) should appear at the top center of the page in bold. Entries are double-spaced using a hanging indent.
**Do not list a reference not used in the body of the paper. Similarly, do not include an in-text citation without a corresponding reference on the reference page.
(3) Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS)
Specialized guidelines developed by APA referred to as JARS outline for authors what information should be included for journal articles. Primarily authors seeking publication or students conducting advanced research projects.
Undergraduate or graduate students conducting advanced projects will use JARS. Common reporting standards for journal articles include the abstract and the introduction.
Undergraduate and graduate students tend to write less complicated research papers; therefore an abstract or introduction are not requirements (unless by programmatic design).
WRITING TIPS FOR STUDENTS
· Acronyms: Identify acronyms on first use. Example: American Public University (APUS).
· Allow Time Between Drafts: While a break of 24 hours or more is ideal, a thirty minute break will yield positive results.
· Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand ('&') instead of the word “and” in text of paper. Always use ampersand (&) in tables, captions and on the reference page.
· Awkward Phrasing: Use Standard English phrasing. For example, “try to do” rather than “try and do,” “we went” rather than “us went.”
· Brainstorming: Before beginning to write, take the time to put ideas down on paper. Mind-mapping and list-making are two useful brainstorming techniques.
· Commas and Introductory Phrases: Usually commas are placed between an introductory phrase and the main sentence; however, commas are rarely used to separate a concluding phrase.
· Complete Sentences: Write in complete sentences and avoid slang. Complete sentences contain both subjects and verbs. Avoid run on sentences.
· etc.: Avoid using etc. at the end of a list unless it is part of a quotation.
· Extra Time: Quality writing takes time – lots of time. Build in a cushion of extra time.
· Help from Others: Being mindful of plagiarism and academic honesty, request proofreading help.
· Homonyms: Homonyms are words sounding similar but are spelled differently and have different definitions. (Example, new and knew; your and you’re; know and no).
· Multiple Drafts: Professional writers create multiple drafts of their writing. You should too.
· Non-words: Ensure all words are Standard English words. (Example, “alot” is not a word).
· Organizing: Plan paper or assignment. This may be as simple as a chronological list of points or as elaborate as a formal outline.
· Question Marks and Quotation Marks: Place question marks outside the quotation mark unless the question mark is part of the quotation.
· Titles of Books and Magazines: Italicize the title of books and magazines.
· Titles of Articles and Chapters: Place the title of articles and chapters of books in quotation marks to set off when mentioned in text.
· Use Formal Voice: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversations, emails, and instant messages.
· Flow of Paper: Use transitional words helping maintain the flow of thought. Use a pronoun referring to a noun in a preceding sentence allows a smooth transition and elevates repetition. Other words assisting in transition are time links (after, next, since, then, while), cause-effect links (as a result, consequently, as a result), addition links (furthermore, in addition, moreover, similarly), and contrast links (although, but, conversely, however, nevertheless). (4.1 – 4.3)
· Anthropomorphism: avoid attributing human characteristics to animals or inanimate sources. (4.11)
· Verb Tense and Active Voice: Limit shifts in verb tense, and use active voice rather than passive voice. (4.12)
· Subject-Verb Agreement: Be sure your subject and verb agree. For example, “we are” rather than “we is,” “they did” rather than “they done.” (4.15)
· Perspective: Use third person point of view when writing research papers (avoiding pronouns such as I, we, my, our (first person) and you, yours, your, us, we (second person). You should deal with facts and not opinions, thus providing citations within paper and on reference page. Focus on the subject itself and not on your feelings about the subject. The use of third person retains a formal tone in your writing. (4.16)
· Wordiness and Redundancy: Eliminate wordy sentences; get your point across with as few words as possible eliminating empty words such as “that”. (4.5)
· Sentence and Paragraph Length: Be sure ideas are fully developed in each paragraph. This usually results in paragraphs of three to five. (4.6)
· Tone: An effective way to achieve the correct tone is write in a way to educate and persuade the reader. (4.7)
· Full Wording Rather Than Contractions: Convert contractions to their complete word-partner. (Examples: it’s = it is; won’t = will not; haven’t = have not). (4.8)
· Bias-Free Language: Writing should maintain a stance of inclusivity and respect for all people, regardless of age, disability, gender, participation in research, racial and ethnic identify, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or intersectionality. Writers should strive to use language free of bias. Writing should never promote prejudice or demeaning attitudes. (5.1 – 5.10)
· Numbers: 0-9 are written out while 10 and above are written as numbers
(Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time be written as words (Example: 1 hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago). (6.32-6.34) Use words for numbers at the beginning of any sentence. (6.33)
· Semicolon: Semicolons are used to either connect two complete sentences, or to connect a list with commas. (6.4)
· Colon: Colons should only be used when the introductory phrase is a complete sentence. (6.5)
· No Slash: Use dashes rather than slashes. (6.6)
· Parenthesis: Parentheses are most often used in citations. Before using in other applications, consult the APA handbook for guidance. (6.8)
· Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. (8.26)
Centered, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Indented, Bold, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
PARAPHRASING VERSUS DIRECT QUOTES
Paraphrasing is your own rendition of someone else’s information or idea. (8.23)
Parenthetical Citation Example: Many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (Conner, 2004).
Narrative Citation Example: Conner suggested many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (2004).
Direct quote: reproduces words verbatim from an author or source. (8.25)
Parenthetical Citation Example: “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the opportunity to take the time to try them out” (Conner, 2004, p. 161).
Narrative Citation Example: According to Conner (2004) “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the opportunity or take the time to try them out" (p. 161).
Block quotations of 40 words or more. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the
whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. Double space entire quote. (8.27) Do NOT use quotation marks unless there are quotations within the quotation then use normal quotation marks not additional ones. You must still give credit for source.
Example (see page 272):
Note periods or commas are within quotation marks when they are part of the quoted material. At end of quote, place period then page number.
Page number must be given for direct quotes. If no page number is available, cite the paragraph number using the abbreviation para. (instead of the symbol ¶). If no page or paragraph numbers are available, cite the heading and paragraph number in which the information is found. (8.28)
WHAT IS A CITATION?
A "citation" is the way you tell readers certain material came from another source. It also gives readers the information necessary to find the source again, including (8.1 – 8.9):
· information about the author
· the title of the work
· the name and location of the company publishing the source
· the date copy was published
· the page numbers of the material
Why should I site sources?
Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:
· Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from.
· Not all sources are good or right – your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas.
· Citing sources shows the amount of research you have done.
· Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.
Doesn't citing sources make my work seem less original?
Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps the reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.
When do I need to site?
Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:
· Whenever you use quotes
· Whenever you paraphrase
· Whenever you use an idea someone else has already expressed
· Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
· Whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use?
No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Facts readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered "common knowledge," and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paper without citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, cite your source just to be safe.
GUIDELINES FOR CITING REFERENCES
In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parenthesis. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence. (8.11)
Do not include the publisher location in the reference. (9.29)
References are in alphabetical order by author name. (9.44)
If no author, the title takes the place of the author and the reference is alphabetized by the first letter of the first word of the title i.e., Study finds. (2005). In-text citation, use quotation marks (“Study Finds,” 2005). If work is designated as “Anonymous”, in-text cite and reference list as so. Do not list the author as anonymous or unknown unless the work is signed “Anonymous” (9.49)