Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The research question/s at hand would is what is Canadas role on the international market regarding synthetic drugs and how does this effect its economy? Furthermore, is - Wridemy Essaydoers

The research question/s at hand would is what is Canadas role on the international market regarding synthetic drugs and how does this effect its economy? Furthermore, is

 

I chose classical theory.

Research question:

The research question/s at hand would is what is Canada’s role on the international market regarding synthetic drugs and how does this effect its economy? Furthermore, is the United States being affected by its proximity to Canada if so, what are the affects? 

week4 is what you did if you remember to build on.

4

Canada’s Role

References

Government of Canada. (2012, August 15). Access to Justice Services Agreements, Evaluation. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cp-pm/eval/rep-rap/12/nas-sna/p4.html

Government of Canada. (2017, October 20). Canadian drugs and substances strategy. http://www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/

Hesterman, J. L. (2013). The terrorist-criminal nexus: an alliance of international drug cartels, organized crime, and terror groups. Taylor & Francis. (Original work published 2022)

Khaliullin, A. I. (2020). Combating Legalization of Proceeds of Participation in Drug Trafficking. Drug Control, 2, 31–35. https://doi.org/10.18572/2072-4160-2020-2-31-35

Kuznietsov, S. (2022). Combating drug trafficking: the international legal dimension. Revista Amazonia Investiga, 11(51), 220–224. https://doi.org/10.34069/ai/2022.51.03.21

Morselli, C., Bouchard, M., Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Ouellet, M., & Easton, S. (2016). It came from the north: assessing the claim of Canada’s rising role as a global supplier of synthetic drugs. Crime, Law and Social Change, 66(3), 247–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9627-5

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (n.d.). Canada. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/canada

Public Safety Canada. (2018a, December 21). ARCHIVE – Canada-United States Border Drug Threat Assessment. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/archive-us-cnd-brdr-drg-2004/index-en.aspx

Public Safety Canada. (2018b, December 21). Working Together to Combat Organized Crime. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/cmbtng-rgnzd-crm/index-en.aspx#a2

Quinones, S. (2022, January 14). Opinion: The synthetic drug era is here. Canada should take notice before it’s too late. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-synthetic-drug-era-is-here-canada-should-take-notice-before-its/

U.S. Department of State. (2021, July 7). U.S. Relations with Canada. https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-canada/

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d). Canada contributes over US$1.3 million to UNODC synthetic drugs programme. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2012/June/canada-contributes-over-us-1.3-million-to-unodc-synthetic-drugs-programme.html

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This assignment is something that you will be able to draw upon moving forward in the program. A research proposal is a very common start to a research project as it helps to frame out the importance of the project itself and show the knowledge gaps that currently exist in the literature. Typically after a solid research proposal is written, the paper unfolds from there as you have a clear framework to follow moving forward.

This assignment requires you to write a proposal that states your research question and your research strategy for addressing it. As mentioned throughout your previous assignments you may draw upon each one to help you build your proposal.

Research Proposal:

The research proposal must be between 8-10 pages in length not including title page or references.

Your title page should include the working title of your research project, your name, date, and course title. You should also have an abstract on your title page.

Your proposal should have the following sections:

Introduction:  The introduction is where you identify your specific research question and where you set the general context for the study. In this section you need to include:

· a statement of the problem or general research question and context leading to a clear statement of the specific research question;

· background and contextual material justifying why this case or topic should be studied; and

· a purpose statement.

Literature Review:  This short preliminary literature review section reviews the literature important to your specific research question. The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same or similar research questions. It introduces the study and places it in a larger context that includes a discussion of why it is important to study this case. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to your specific research question. In this section you should:

· Summarize the general state of the literature (cumulative knowledge base) on the specific research question. For example, if you discuss other studies that have been conducted you would summarize the researcher's findings, how those findings were obtained, and conduct an evaluation of biases in the findings.

· This section should provide a broad overview of the primary arguments related to the topic and organizes the general views on the main aspects of the topic by theme, which could be the prevailing arguments or schools of thought, or commonly held beliefs that your particular topic may challenge.

· Include a short conclusion and transition to the next section.

In your literature review, you should also discuss the theoretical framework to be used in the study. You should ensure you cover the following in your discussion:

· a summary of the theory or model to be used in the study, including a diagram of the model if appropriate;

· comment on the kinds of questions this theory has been used to answer in the past and why it is appropriate to use in this proposed study

· To really drive this home you want to end your literature review with a discussion of the current knowledge gaps. This is an opportunity to once again promote the importance of your own research. How will your research fit within this larger body of knowledge? What are you doing differently? What gaps will your research fill?

· For some additional information on how to organize your theoretical framework into your paper, check out this  USC Library guide on Theoretical Frameworks .

From here you would then include a transition into your methodology section.

NOTE: Literature reviews can be a bit tricky to write. Think back to how you wrote your short theory lit review in week 4. Chances are you already started to write in a style similar to what one does when completing a literature review. Check out  this video  (the same one you were guided to in week 4) to help you further prepare to write this section of your proposal. This will not be the last time that you are asked to write a literature review in your academic career so it is important to master this skill.

Research Design and Methods:  Describes how you will answer your research question or test the hypothesis. This section describes your overall research design and how you plan to collect, synthesize, and interpret your data. It should include:

· identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables;

· a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate);

· justification of case studies used;

· data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.);

· a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); and

· the limitations of the study and bias discussion.

Conclusion:  Reemphasizes the importance of your study and ties the proposal together.

Reference List : As with all academic papers you need to references the works that you have cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text of your document and incorporate a complete reference list or bibliography at the end. This list needs to be in the style used within your field. APA= Criminal Justice, Turabian for all others in this course.

Remember that the references you use demonstrate your knowledge of the topic area. This research proposal is meant to convince your professor that you not only have identified a worthy question in need of investigation but that you are also capable of carrying out the research involved to successfully answer that question. At the very least you should have referenced 12-15 peer-reviewed sources in this proposal.

References

Government of Canada. (2012, August 15). Access to Justice Services Agreements, Evaluation. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cp-pm/eval/rep-rap/12/nas-sna/p4.html

Government of Canada. (2017, October 20). Canadian drugs and substances strategy. http://www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/

Hesterman, J. L. (2013). The terrorist-criminal nexus: an alliance of international drug cartels, organized crime, and terror groups. Taylor & Francis. (Original work published 2022)

Khaliullin, A. I. (2020). Combating Legalization of Proceeds of Participation in Drug Trafficking. Drug Control, 2, 31–35. https://doi.org/10.18572/2072-4160-2020-2-31-35

Kuznietsov, S. (2022). Combating drug trafficking: the international legal dimension. Revista Amazonia Investiga, 11(51), 220–224. https://doi.org/10.34069/ai/2022.51.03.21

Morselli, C., Bouchard, M., Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Ouellet, M., & Easton, S. (2016). It came from the north: assessing the claim of Canada’s rising role as a global supplier of synthetic drugs. Crime, Law and Social Change, 66(3), 247–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9627-5

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (n.d.). Canada. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/canada

Public Safety Canada. (2018a, December 21). ARCHIVE – Canada-United States Border Drug Threat Assessment. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/archive-us-cnd-brdr-drg-2004/index-en.aspx

Public Safety Canada. (2018b, December 21). Working Together to Combat Organized Crime. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/cmbtng-rgnzd-crm/index-en.aspx#a2

Quinones, S. (2022, January 14). Opinion: The synthetic drug era is here. Canada should take notice before it’s too late. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-synthetic-drug-era-is-here-canada-should-take-notice-before-its/

U.S. Department of State. (2021, July 7). U.S. Relations with Canada. https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-canada/

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d). Canada contributes over US$1.3 million to UNODC synthetic drugs programme. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2012/June/canada-contributes-over-us-1.3-million-to-unodc-synthetic-drugs-programme.html

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4

Canada’s Role

APA

Literature Review

Antoine L. Smith

American Military University

SSGS500

Dr. David J. Kritz

July 3, 2022

Literature Review

Early Conceptualization of the Theory and Its Development over Time

The selected substantive theory for the literature review is the classical theory which is a traditional theory that holds that the economy is self-regulating and thus it can achieve the natural level of output when resources are fully employed. This means that while several circumstances arise from time to time with the potential of causing the economy to fall, the theory maintains that there are self-adjustment mechanisms that can bring the economy back to its natural Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Built on an accounting model, the theory seeks to detect organizational errors and correct them to ensure that the overall success of the organization is realized. The theory therefore is more concerned with the amount of output rather than the human beings since it assumes that human beings are relatively stable in terms of change.

The theory was developed during the Industrial Revolution in Britain when economists sought to explain the forces that influenced economic growth as well as the mechanics that underlie the growth process. Classical theorists such as Adam Smith found that division of labor, gains from trade, and capital accumulation were the main drivers of economic growth. They argued that for countries to sustain economic growth, they needed to reconcile conflicting economic interests through the creation of competitive market forces and the limited activity of responsible government. According to this theory, trading in the international market encourages specialization and division of labor which increases economic gains for countries.

When a country concentrates on the production of specific products, it can meet its needs and exchange the surplus with other countries that are less suited to produce the goods thus improving its economy and the economy of that country. While extending Adam Smith’s conceptualization of the theory, David Ricardo showed that trade could lead to further economic gains in addition to the gains from specialization and division of labor. This led to the development of the concept of comparative advantage as a basis for specialization and free trade among nations.

Canada’s Role in the International Market Regarding Synthetic Drugs and how it affects Its Economy

According to the US Office of National Drug Control Policy, Canada is both a leading consumer and producer of illegal drugs especially high-potency marijuana and synthetics. For instance, Cannabis cultivation due to its low risks and high profitability is a thriving industry in Canada in the form of high-potency and indoor-grown marijuana for local consumption or exportation to nearby countries such as the United States. This is exacerbated by concerns that the scale and trend of illegal production, demand, and trade in drugs are steadily increasing (Kuznietsov, 2022). Although the government through its relevant agencies such as the Border Services Agency (BSA) has stepped up support to aid in the monitoring of global synthetics from Canada, it remains an important player in the international market (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, n.d). According to Morselli et al., (2016), the past decade saw increasing attention turn towards Canada due to its active role as a supplier of synthetic drugs to the wider international market.

Analysis of the province of Quebec shows that the production of synthetic drugs is not high enough to substantiate a significant exportation potential. This indicates that the consumer market is unsophisticated and typically immature since the market is largely localized, decentralized, and characterized by young people. Despite these analyses, research shows that synthetic drugs have become a serious concern in Canada. One of the common synthetic drugs is methamphetamine which has become a serious domestic problem and the government is currently responding with stringent laws against its production and trafficking and restricting the sale of related over-the-counter products in select provinces (Government of Canada, 2017). Another important synthetic drug whose production has dramatically risen in recent years is methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy). This is because Canada has replaced Belgium and the Netherlands who were previously the primary producers of MDMA for the U.S. and other markets.

Seizure data reveals that the amount of MDMA seized along the US-Canada border increased 156 percent from 2007 to 2008 (Office of National Drug Control Policy, n.d). Although it declined in 2009, it still exceeded 2007 totals. MDMA and methamphetamine are very dangerous synthetic drugs and when mixed, they create a dangerous poly-drug combination that can cause severe health problems in users. The danger posed by these drugs at both domestic and international levels pushed Canada to form the Synthetic Drug Initiative, a strategy focused on eliminating the production and distribution of synthetic drugs (Office of National Drug Control Policy, n.d). The Strategy has enabled Canada to play a greater role internationally, particularly with respect to curbing its export of MDMA to the United States (Government of Canada, 2012). The numerous steps that Canada has taken so far against synthetic drugs confirm that synthetic drugs are a serious problem for the government. This is because their use is associated with costly health, community, and economic impacts and presents an economic burden to the Canadian public.

The increased production of synthetic drugs and Canada's growing role in the international market have serious impacts on the economy. For instance, organized crime in Canada is linked to the synthetic drug market (Public Safety Canada, 2018b). Members of organized crime groups not only engage in the production of synthetic drugs but also promote their importation to countries such as the United States. The lucrative profits from these drug activities translate into increased power for organized crime and increased costs such as healthcare spending which all Canadians bear (Khaliullin, 2020). It has also led to a wide range of economic crimes such as credit card fraud, identify theft, and insurance theft which carries heavy economic implications for Canada both locally and internationally.

Closely related are Intellectual Property (IP) crime and counterfeit currency which are slowly becoming serious problems that can have a significant impact on the stability of the Canadian economy. Research conducted by the Bank of Canada revealed that Canada tops G-10 countries in terms of measured vulnerability of domestic banknotes to counterfeiting.

How the United States is affected by its Proximity to Canada

The bilateral relationship between the United States and Canada is one of the closest and most extensive with goods over $1.7 billion traded daily across the border (U.S. Department of State, 2021). They work in partnership to enhance security and economic competitiveness through the acceleration of the legitimate flow of goods, services, and people. The relationship has also opened doors to criminal elements such as the trafficking of drugs across the border (Hesterman, 2013). Research shows that the United States is the main destination of synthetic drugs especially MDMA from Canada an indication that it is affected in several ways due to its proximity to Canada.

Given the trade relationships between the two countries, organized criminal groups in Canada can make, smuggle and sell synthetic drugs with less risk and more profit to the United States. As a result, one of the main effects is that the United States is flooded with MDMA, and given its health, social and economic impacts, it severely erodes the society and economy of the United States (Public Safety Canada, 2018a). The United States has to grapple with the costs of treating people with drug addiction through therapeutic interventions (Quinones, 2022). These concerns have encouraged the two countries to create and enforce a robust counterdrug enforcement relationship to address the significant health and socio-economic threats.

One of the measures that are currently in place is the deployment of Integrated Border Enforcement Teams to enforce the laws and limit the trafficking of synthetic drugs between the two countries. The two countries have committed to a bilateral initiative to address the problem through a joint action plan that was launched in January 2020 (U.S. Department of State, 2021). The action plan seeks to combat the trafficking of synthetic drugs through law enforcement and cooperation. They also address the problem through the G-7and the North American Drug Dialogue.

Conclusion

Using the classical theory, there is a need to address the problem of synthetic drugs in Canada and its trickle-down effect on the United States and other countries by identifying the loopholes in governance and measures for addressing them. For instance, Canada has instituted various laws and strategies to curb the problem yet there is still laxity in enforcement thus encouraging the trafficking of drugs. There are agreements that govern free trade between Canada and the United States and these have encouraged economic growth between these nations. However, there is a need for the two countries to strengthen border relations to address the vast harm done by synthetic drug production and the easy flow across the borders.

Although the classical theory suggests that countries can achieve a natural level of real GDP since the economy is self-regulating, the reality is that it is not as simple as the theory suggests. This exposes the need for research on the theory to focus on this aspect so that there is a clear understanding of how economies can self-regulate despite the challenges that they face. Research should also focus on the extreme complexity and dynamism of modern economies and how these can influence the self-regulating nature of economies. One of the main questions that remain today is the applicability of the classical theory given its traditional approach to economic growth. This calls for the need to identify new ways to apply it. For instance, given the complexity and dynamism of factors that affect economic growth, research can focus on such areas and how to incentivize them to ensure continued economic growth.

References

Government of Canada. (2012, August 15). Access to Justice Services Agreements, Evaluation. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cp-pm/eval/rep-rap/12/nas-sna/p4.html

Government of Canada. (2017, October 20). Canadian drugs and substances strategy. http://www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/

Hesterman, J. L. (2013). The terrorist-criminal nexus: an alliance of international drug cartels, organized crime, and terror groups. Taylor & Francis. (Original work published 2022)

Khaliullin, A. I. (2020). Combating Legalization of Proceeds of Participation in Drug Trafficking. Drug Control, 2, 31–35. https://doi.org/10.18572/2072-4160-2020-2-31-35

Kuznietsov, S. (2022). Combating drug trafficking: the international legal dimension. Revista Amazonia Investiga, 11(51), 220–224. https://doi.org/10.34069/ai/2022.51.03.21

Morselli, C., Bouchard, M., Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Ouellet, M., & Easton, S. (2016). It came from the north: assessing the claim of Canada’s rising role as a global supplier of synthetic drugs. Crime, Law and Social Change, 66(3), 247–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9627-5

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (n.d.). Canada. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/canada

Public Safety Canada. (2018a, December 21). ARCHIVE – Canada-United States Border Drug Threat Assessment. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/archive-us-cnd-brdr-drg-2004/index-en.aspx

Public Safety Canada. (2018b, December 21). Working Together to Combat Organized Crime. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/cmbtng-rgnzd-crm/index-en.aspx#a2

Quinones, S. (2022, January 14). Opinion: The synthetic drug era is here. Canada should take notice before it’s too late. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-synthetic-drug-era-is-here-canada-should-take-notice-before-its/

U.S. Department of State. (2021, July 7). U.S. Relations with Canada. https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-canada/

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d). Canada contributes over US$1.3 million to UNODC synthetic drugs programme. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2012/June/canada-contributes-over-us-1.3-million-to-unodc-synthetic-drugs-programme.html

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