Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Based on the reading of this week on ‘Prejudice & Intergroup Relationships’, do you believe you have ever been a perceived negatively based on your racial i - Wridemy Essaydoers

Based on the reading of this week on ‘Prejudice & Intergroup Relationships’, do you believe you have ever been a perceived negatively based on your racial i

Answer each question in 150 words each


1. Based on the reading of this week on "Prejudice & Intergroup Relationships", do you believe you have ever been a perceived negatively based on your racial identity? How did that make you feel? And do you believe your own perspective is broad enough? 

2.According to the Powerpoint, Classical Conditioning is a tactic used in marketing to appeal to the audience. It states, for example, in the real world, when we hear the word Muslim paired with the word terrorist enough it may solidified eventually. Does the news media use this tactic to persuade its audience? Provide an example.

Chapter 7

Attitudes, Beliefs, & Consistency

Part 2

Attitude Change

Last time we began to discuss Cognitive Dissonance, but we didn’t really get to delve into and its implications

Today we’ll go into much more depth with Dissonance, the attitude-behavior problem, beliefs, and belief perseverance

Let’s start by checking out this video

Attitude Change

The video on the next slide applies dissonance to real world situation (like smoking, veganism, and diet in general)

Note* I’m not personally vegan, though I wonder if maybe I should be, but that’s not the point

The speaker is clearly vegan and trying to promote that, however, the point here is how these situations do illustrate dissonance very well

It also summarizes dissonance and shows clips from the real original study

There may be a few questions from this on the next exam!

Attitude Change

Attitude Change

I liked how he focused on the temporary situations that can promote dissonance in those moments

And he’s definitely right, I’ve watched arguments between vegans or vegetarians and meat-eaters, and the dissonance is palpable

Additionally, it expresses how it’s easier to change one’s attitudes than one’s behaviors

Especially with not eating unhealthy food

Attitude Change & Choices

Some choices can bring about attitude change

One dissonance study found that:

Participants who were told they had to write an essay about why a controversial speaker should be banned from their college did not change their initial view (which was that the speaker should be allowed)

However, participants who were simply asked politely to write such an essay, did, by the end, come to change their initial view to be that the speaker should not be allowed

Dissonance continued

Post-decision dissonance

Ever bought a piece of clothing and wondered if maybe there was one out there that was a better fit or cooler look?

Or ordered one flavor of ice cream just to be drooling over another?

That’s post-decision dissonance

To resolve this/make it go away, people usually justify their choices and make the alternative seem less appealing

Some studies by Schwartz and colleagues found that some people are maximizers, who want to always make the best possible choices, whereas others…

Dissonance continued

Others are satisficers, who just want to make a good enough choice to feel content

When there are too many options in a decision, that’s called the Tyranny of Choice

Situations with many options can be difficult for maximizers, who tend to be less optimistic and more depressed

Advances in Dissonance Research

Does the attitude shift that occurs as a result of dissonance happen if a person never feels the discomfort that dissonance causes?

In a typical dissonance study, researchers told some participants that a pill they took (placebo, sugar pill) would make them feel uneasy

Those participants did not have a shift in attitude to resolve dissonance, they blamed the pill

Participants who received no pill felt uncomfortable due to dissonance and changed their attitudes

Some cultural differences in dissonance have been observed, with North Americans experiencing more dissonance than East Asians

Attitudes & Behavior

Can attitudes really predict behavior?

Low correlation between general attitudes, “I like helping people,” and specific behaviors, “I volunteer to tutor or at a homeless shelter.”

Strong correlation between specific attitudes, like toward giving blood, and specific behaviors, giving blood

General attitudes can predict behavior better if those attitudes are made salient before a chance to act on the behavior occurs

Attitudes & Behavior

When attitudes and behavior don’t line up, that’s called the A-B problem.

There are interesting gender differences between men and women in terms of how attitudes predict behavior in terms of sex

Sexual Attitudes vs Behaviors

Battle of the sexes! Who was more consistent?

Fidelity: men’s attitude toward fidelity explained 33% of their behavior, whereas women’s attitude toward fidelity only explained 11%

Homosexual behavior: among men who said they were interested in gay sex, 85% had engaged in it that year, among women, <50% who were interested engaged in it.

Condom use: there was higher pro-condom use attitude-behavior consistency among men than women (surprising)

Sexual Attitudes vs Behaviors

Of course there could be alternate explanations to those data

For example women’s attitude-behavior ratio for condom use could be lower because a guy pressures them into not using a condom

What about other famous examples of misalignments between sexual attitudes and behaviors?

Sexual Attitudes vs Behaviors

Married Republican Oklahoma state senator Ralph Shortey had a political platform that was anti-marijuana and anti-LBGTQ

He was caught by the police on body-cam in a hotel room with a 17 year old male prostitute, he had also been smoking pot

He later resigned, was arrested,

and plead guilty to child sex



When we’re told something, pigs can fly, we automatically believe it for a moment before we question it (Gilbert, 1991)

The non-conscious mind receives information without questioning it, as a first step

Only afterwards, does the conscious mind step in and override erroneous beliefs

Religious cults sometime abuse this

They will present information when their potential members are in a tired/distracted state, so as to

make it more believable

Belief Perseverance

Important Study Alert!!

Belief Perseverance (Ross, Lepper, & Hubbard, 1975)

Participants read through 25 fictitious suicide notes and told to identify the real ones

The researchers told participants they either got 24/25 right or 10/25 right (determined by a coin flip)

When participants were debriefed at the end of the study, they were told their score was made-up/bogus

Then participants were asked to estimate how well they would really do if determining if suicide notes were real/fake

Participants given the positive bogus feedback believed they’d do much better than those who received negative feedback

Belief Perseverance

Another famous belief perseverance study:

Anderson, Lepper, & Ross (1980)

Half of the participants read cases that conveyed that cautious people make better firefights

The other half read cases that said risk-takers make better


Told to come up with theories

explaining the cases they had read

Then told the cases were all bogus

Finally, they were asked to rate

which type of firefighters would be

best and they maintained the

original, false, belief

Belief Perseverance

One way to reduce or remove belief perseverance is to ask people to consider the opposite of the initial belief that was provided

E.g. if participants were told cautious fighters were best initially, asking them to explain why risk-taking firefights could be best will reduce the initial bias

Beliefs about the world

So far we’ve covered research on specific beliefs about various topics, but what about general world outlooks?

This line of work arose from early therapists who were surprised at the level of trauma that occurred from crimes in which no long term physical or financial damage occurred

E.g. a purse was snatched, or a relatively minor sexual assault occurred years in the past

Beliefs about the world

What was discovered is that many people have assumptions about the world, Assumptive Worlds:

1. The world is benevolent: people are nice and it’s safe

2. The world is fair and just: people get what they deserve, if you’re good, good things happen to you

3. I’m a good person, so good things should happen

But when even a minor crime occurs, a person’s view of the world can be fundamentally shifted, and the trauma from that can be worse than the crime itself

Beliefs about the world

Belief in a just world can also be a huge problem

Legal Psychologists have found that when someone believes the world is just, they are more likely to blame victims

E.g. “She got raped because she was asking for it.”

Otherwise, how else can someone who believes in a just world explain something bad happening to someone good?

As a side note, sometimes self-blame can be an important coping mechanism to heal

E.g. “I got mugged because I wasn’t careful, was out too late.”

That can empower the victim to feel safer if he/she avoids making the same mistake in the future







Chapter 7

Attitudes, Beliefs, & Consistency

Part 1


“The concept of the attitude is probably the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary American social Psychology”

Gordon Allport, 1935

They remain extremely important today


Today we’ll discuss everything to do with attitudes!

What they are

How they’re formed

How they can change

And consistent vs. inconsistent attitudes


Attitudes and beliefs are different

A belief is a fact or opinion about something

E.g. it’s probably cloudy outside, or tall people make good basketball players

Beliefs are for explaining

Attitudes are a global evaluation of something

I like ___ or I dislike ___

I am in support of ____ or don’t support ____

Attitudes are for choosing


We have attitudes about absolutely everything!!


Look at that table…

I bet you already have an attitude about it, either you slightly like or slightly dislike it, or even strongly like/dislike it

Initial attitudes are immediate, forming non-consciously within the first microsecond


Initial attitudes that are formed immediately can be overridden, but they may not be

Consider the implications for first impressions!

People even develop attitudes for nonsense words

Juvalamu is considered pleasing by most

Chakaka is not pleasing to most

Attitudes are often very adaptive and helpful

Imagine being at a dinner and having no preference or opinion about anything on the menu

Dual Attitudes

Do any of you have a friend that always talks about health/fitness…

But you never see him/her eat healthily or play sports or go to the gym?

Or a friend that says he/she likes horror movies but you’ve watched movies with them 100 times and they’ve never suggested watching a horror movie?

Dual Attitudes

There’s a difference between explicit, conscious, stated attitudes

E.g. Fred likes ice cream

And implicit, non-conscious, unstated attitudes

E.g. Fred never eats ice cream

This is because we have a duplex mind, that both operates consciously and non-consciously

We will return to this idea next chapter when we cover the topic of prejudice

How are attitudes formed?

Mere Exposure Effect

Research by Zajonc exposed participants to various Turkish words and Chinese-like characters

Some words/characters were shown more frequently than others

Participants rated the ones shown more often more favorably

Animals develop a similar preference for things they’re exposed to

*Mere exposure doesn’t work if you originally have a negative attitude toward something

How are attitudes formed?

Mere Exposure Effect continued

When I used to listen to the radio more, this was definitely the perfect example of Mere Exposure

You’d start off neutral about a song, then they’d play it a million times, and a month later you’re singing along…

I’d say which group’s success I think this explains but then it’d just be obvious how I old I am cause no one has heard of those singers in forever lol

It’s interesting too that people are used to seeing themselves in reverse due to mirrors

We prefer the reversed image of ourselves but our friends prefer the unreversed image

If you have a webcam, you should be able to try both

I swear one of my eyes looks droopy or something when I see myself unreversed…most unsettling!

How are attitudes formed?

How else are attitudes formed?

Classical Conditioning:

You probably recall the famous Pavlov dogs study from your Intro to Psy class or from Behaviorism

The dogs were trained to salivate at the chime of a bell because they associated it with food

How are attitudes formed?

Classical Conditioning:

People use classical conditioning in marketing all the time…

Just pair your product with someone hot or famous…

How are attitudes formed?

Classical Conditioning:

A study by Staats & Staats showed how easy it was to create a preference for words/concepts

They paired the word Dutch with good words, and Swedish with bad words, then had participants rate them at the end

They rated the word Dutch more favorably

Or, if they reversed this and paired Swedish with good words, they rated that more favorably

*Consider the implications of this for the real world, if we hear about Muslim or Arab paired with the word terrorist enough, how long before that pairing becomes solidified?

How are attitudes formed?

Operant Conditioning

The Skinner Box studies where rats learned to press a lever for food

Other researchers demonstrated how kids that wrote an essay on a topic liked the topic better if they received an A. rather than a D.

Their grades were determined by a coinflip

So if someone doesn’t like doing something and you reward them for it, it should increase that behavior

Be careful not to reward someone for something they do naturally, that’s the overjustification effect

How are attitudes formed?

Social Learning (aka vicarious learning)

In another classic study, Bandura showed that when small children observed an adult punching a Bobo doll, they mimicked the adult

This can also explain how we develop attitudes

If you are neutral about something, say a tv show, but then your friend is always watching something when you go to their house (Game of Thrones maybe?)

Your attitude toward it may go from neutral to positive

Attitude Polarization

Can attitudes be easily changed?

If someone has an attitude about baseball (or anything), and you ask them to think more about it…

their attitude will naturally polarize, they will be more extreme one way or the other

“You know, I do really like baseball,” or “actually, I don’t like baseball at all”

Attitude Polarization Continued

*The following is one of the most important studies in Social Psychology:

Lord, Ross, and Lepper (1979) conducted research on Attitude Polarization

Some participants in their study were pro-death penalty, others were anti-death penalty

All participants read various studies about the death penalty

Pro-DP participants favored the studies that supported their view and found flaws with the studies that didn’t support their view

Attitude Polarization Continued

Lord, Ross, & Lepper continued:

Anti-DP participants showed the same trend, favored articles that were anti-DP and disliked pro articles

The end result is that both groups became FURTHER polarized in their already polarized views on the topic

Meaning Pro-DP participants became even more Pro-DP, and Anti-DP became even more Anti-DP

Attitude Polarization Continued

Consider the implications of Attitude Polarization for the current political situation in the U.S…

How could you ever possibly get someone to change their view if when

you present them with evidence

to the contrary, it only further

entrenches them in their

original view???????

Attitude Polarization Continued

I’m under the impression even if you presented some people with a panel of scientific experts on a given topic, it wouldn’t be enough to change their view.

One small ray of hope is that when contrary information is presented by members of one’s ingroup, people are more likely to accept it than if out-group members presented it

Attitude Consistency

Overall, as humans we strongly want our own attitudes to be consistent and also like it best when our attitudes match up with those of our friends/associates

Let’s examine how some researchers have studied attitude consistency

Attitude Consistency

Heider explained this using P-O-X triads:

You (Person) like Jenny (Other person), you also like Gina (X, could be a person, place thing, or idea), and Jenny likes Gina. So everything is in balance

If you liked Jenny, but she didn’t like Gina, there would be an inconsistency

Attitude Consistency

When we have inconsistencies in our lives, we are motivated to resolve them

It’s unpleasant when our own attitudes/behaviors are inconsistent

It’s also unpleasant when other people’s attitudes aren’t consistent with our views

Ever noticed how on Facebook most people seem to have friends who mostly share their political views?

Additionally, when we have an attitude-behavior inconsistency, people usually take the easy route and just change their attitude

Attitude Consistency

Now let’s discuss Festinger’s famous study on Cognitive Dissonance

It would be good to thoroughly understand this study/concept, as it will come up many times in both life and future classes/work

The need to research dissonance arose from a problem in the research on operant conditioning

According to operant conditioning, if you pay someone a lot of money to say they like bussel sprouts, they are rewarded, and they should end up liking them more, but that doesn’t happen

In fact the people who were paid a very small amount ended up liking them more. That’s inconsistent with operant conditioning

Attitude Consistency

Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959) *Know those names/date

Participants had signed up for a study called ‘Measures of Performance,’ about how they perform on routine tasks

For the first 30 minutes of the study, participants took 12 small wooden spools on a tray one at time, then took them off again one at a time, then back on, etc.

For the next 30 minutes of the study, participants were asked to turn 48 square pegs a quarter turn each, again and again

Attitude Consistency

Dissonance Continued:

*Note, both of those tasks were EXTREMELY boring…I mean torturously boring!

After that, the researcher tells participants the real point of the study is about motivating people to do mundane/repetitious tasks

The researcher says they usually have someone who tells participants the task is fun to motivate them, but that he’s not here today

The participants are then asked to fill in for that person and tell the next participant the task was fun

Attitude Consistency

Dissonance Continued

Then, the researcher said something else based on which condition a participant was in:

Condition 1: participants in this condition were offered 1$ to tell the lie that the study was fun

Condition 2: here participants were offered 20$ to tell the lie that the study was fun

Condition 3: this was the control condition, participants were offered no money but still asked to lie

and did so

All participants agreed to help the researcher by lying

Attitude Consistency

Dissonance Continued:

The person the participants lied to was actually a confederate (a plant), the confederate expressed skepticism that the task was fun

But the participants always insisted it was enjoyable

The final, and crucial, step of the study is that the participants were given an exit questionnaire in which they were asked to rate how fun the study was to them

Participants rated the study on a -5 (not at all fun) to +5 (very fun) scale

Attitude Consistency

Dissonance Continued:

Control group and the 20$ participants rated the study in the negative, it wasn’t fun

The 1$ participants rated it as slightly enjoyable, in the positive.


The 20$ can explain the fact that they lied because they were paid

But being paid 1$ isn’t reason enough to lie. Thus there’s inconsistency: the 1$ participants lied, but they don’t want to see themselves as liar

It’s too late to change their behavior (the lie)

So to resolve the inconsistency, they change their attitude, the study was fun after all












Chapter 13

Prejudice & Intergroup Relations

Part 2

Introduction to Prejudice


Some of the material regarding the description of hate crimes may be disturbing

During this lecture we’ll look into explicit bias, stereotypes, the causes of prejudice and ways to overcome it.

Explicit Bias

So far we have discussed implicit bias…

But what about when people just outright say, “We don’t like group ____.”

That’s referred to as explicit bias.

Common targets of explicit bias include:

Arab or Muslim people

Gay people

Jewish people

Over-weight people

Mexican people

Explicit Bias

Lost Letter paradigm:

White participants were asked to rate their agreement with questions like “I can hardly imagine myself voting for an Arab-American running for an important political office.”

Then they were sorted based on their responses as either prejudiced or not prejudiced

A few weeks after completing those questionnaires, the 2nd part of the study began

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